All Westmorland’s nineteenth century railway lines were built using traditional methods and employed thousands of railway labourers during their construction. These men came from all over the country, with or without their families, and had to be housed near to the sections they were employed on. Sometimes they lodged with local families but the large numbers meant that sometimes the railway contractors had to build temporary housing. The so-called ‘shanty towns’ at Ribblehead on the Settle-Carlisle line are well-known but some of those within the project area are yet to be located, such as the navvy settlement at Crosby Garrett known as Balaclava Huts. The site was recorded in the 1871 census and also referred to in the Settle-Carlisle Railway Contract no. 3 (Crosby Garrett tunnel to Newbiggin), but we don’t know where it was exactly. The labourers worked specifically on the building of the tunnel and the viaduct at Crosby Garrett so it can’t have been far from these.
It seems that some of these railway settlements were not kept to the highest standards as this report by a local medical officer into the incidence of typhoid among navvies building the Settle-Carlise line in 1874 makes clear:
“…Of the deaths from typhoid fever no less than five were of navvies, two of whom died in the workhouse. The cause of this malady was, without doubt, attributable to the defective state of the huts occupied by those labourers. I have already expressed to the Board my sense of the difficulties inherent in any efficient inspection or supervision of these places, partly on account of their distant and inaccessible places, which render it an extraordinary task for the inspector to visit frequently and carry out my instructions. This is especially the case with the clusters of huts in the hills and moorland through which the railway is being carried in Mallerstang. The recommendations which I then made regarding the lime whiting, cleansing the open trenches which run along in front of the doors of the huts and serve as receptacles for their slops and house refuse, and the removal of the filth accumulations which everywhere lay scattered on the sodden ground, transforming it into a quagmire, were communicated to the owners and were adopted at the time. But what I have to request your attention to is the very partial and temporary benefit resulting from this impulsive kind of work, only resorted to when matters are at their worst, and the utter impossibility of the maintenance of wholesome conditions without a proper system of periodic and daily scavenging at each of the hut villages. Their occupants cannot be expected to do this work, as their time must be constantly engaged with the wants of the lodgers, ten, twelve, and even fourteen of whom I counted in each of many of the huts; but I consider it to be the duty of the owners who let their huts to their tenants on the condition of accommodating such lodgers also to provide for the cleansing of the surroundings and the removal of refuse. With regard to the preventative treatment of infectious diseases occurring in the huts, I have to remark that the overcrowding which generally exists renders any action of the kind almost nugatory. Hence under the circumstances there are two requirements of urgent necessity; – one of those being the diminution of the number of lodgers, so that there may be at least 300 cubic feet of space per man in the sleeping apartment used in common by them, where 170 cubic feet at present frequently obtains; and the other provision of a place or separate hut for the reception and immediate isolation of infected patients. With regard to the overcrowding I may state that the extremely vitiated air of those sleeping apartments cannot fail to exert obnoxious influence on the health of the navvy, who, doubtless, is enabled to a certain extent to resist the evil by the enormous consumption of substantial meals, and particularly of animal food, which I have often had opportunities to witness.” ‘East Ward Rural Sanitary Authority’ Penrith Observer 16th June 1874
Smallpox was another killer amongst the railway workers and in 1871 a Settle-Carlisle works manager Henry Bushby was charged with manslaughter after one of his navvies died of it after he’d had him moved from his railway hut at Crosby Garrett to the workhouse in Kirkby Stephen (‘Charge Of Manslaughter – Removal Of A Smallpox Patient’, Whitehaven News Thursday 6th April 1871 p.3). The case was dismissed.
Outbreaks of disease amongst the navvies put a strain on local medical services, but we find little resentment expressed, presumably the future long term economic benefits of the coming of the railways outweighed any short term costs.
The arrival of large numbers of labourers in rural communities did however lead to a certain amount of alarm amongst the politer members of the local population. Outbreaks of drunken behaviour and thieving were reported in lurid detail in the Westmorland Gazette. The Lancaster & Carlisle Railway was the first to be built and seems to have produced the most outrageous incidents such as the following events from September 1844.
Following the theft of money during the monthly payment in Shap to sub-contractors on the line all hell broke loose as the police pursued the perpetrators. Having caught one, they followed another to Shap…
“…[the three police officers] found the entire village a scene of outrage, confusion and drunkenness. Not a hundred out of four hundred railway labourers were at work. The rest were drinking, fighting, and perpetrating all sorts of disorderly doings. The local constables, as well as the local inhabitants, were perfectly frightened at them, and not without cause…
Among other complaints made of the conduct of the navigators is one that has become general and loud throughout the neighbourhood, that as railway labourers increase, the broods of chickens and flocks of geese and of turkeys very sensibly, though very mysteriously, decrease, and a panic of apprehension has arisen for the safety of the sheep of the district, many navvies having expressed a strong liking for mutton.
“Shap Wells, during Sunday last, was also besieged, and the labourers, not content with the common rooms set apart for customers of their grade, intruded themselves into the hotel, to the great annoyance of Mrs. Gibson, the very respectable landlady, and the terror of the visitors staying at the house, for the benefit of the Shap waters.
“Low Borrowbridge was also a scene of confusion and disturbance during the greater part of Saturday night and Sunday. A number of the labourers having got drunk, and being refused more liquor, broke the windows, doors, and glasses, and proceeded to assault Mr. Noble and his family, and one of the railway sub-contractors, in a most savage manner. Next morning a navvy named Tongue was found in a cow-house adjoining the inn, coolly engaging in milking one of the cows for his own delectation. He was pursued to Kendal, and there given into the custody of Mr. Grossmith [county police officer]….We should not omit to state that Orton was kept in a state of disorder similar to that existing at Shap and Low Borrowbridge, during the whole of Sunday and Monday by the railway labourers.”
‘County Police Lancaster & Carlisle Railway’ Westmorland Gazette Saturday 21 September 1844
Paying all the navvies on a Saturday once a month seemed to be asking for trouble according to this anonymous newspaper letter writer in 1846:
“Sir,- I have for many months past been greatly shocked by the state of our streets on a Sabbath morning after a railway-labourer’s pay-day, ….I have myself counted upwards of twenty of these infatuated beings, on a Sunday morning, in a state degraded beyond the level of the brute creation, many unable to walk, and all cursing themselves and those around them in a manner which shocks the feelings of the most indifferent…Kendal April 29th 1846 CIVIS [citizen]”
‘Correspondence to the Editor of the Westmorland Gazette’ Westmorland Gazette Saturday 2 May 1846
Reports of mass brawls seemed to decline with the building of the South Durham & Lancashire Railway line, but individual fights between locals and railway workers were still being reported such as this one involving the aptly nicknamed navvy called ‘Punch’:
Sometimes the railway workers picked fights with each other as was reported during the building of the Settle-Carlisle line at Crosby Garrett in 1872.
“William Cox, navvy, was charged by John Fletcher, ganger on the railway at Crosby Garrett, with striking him with an iron crow-bar, whilst in execution of his duty, on Wednesday last. It appears that some ill-feeling existed between Cox and the ganger, which resulted in the assault in question. Complainant procured a warrant for the apprehension of Cox, which was put into the hands of Sergt. Shields, the officer in charge of the constabulary station at Kirkby Stephen, who arrested him just as he was making out of the county. The Bench took a serious view of the case, and committed the prisoner to gaol for two months with hard labour, without the option of a fine.”
‘Serious Assault at Crosby Garrett’ Westmorland Gazette 7 December 1872
Getting drunk and fighting, was one thing, but theft from the railway contractors was quite another. Firewood seems to have been a favourite:
“On Saturday last, Thos. Dangerfield a navvy, was brought before E. Wilson, Esq., charged by Mr. J. P. Bibby, Police Superintendent, Borrow-Bridge District, with stealing a quantity of temporary sleepers, posts and rails, the property of Messrs. Stephenson, and Co., contractors for the Lancaster and Carlisle Railway. It appeared that on Friday afternoon, the Superintendent, on passing the excavators’ hut at Docker Garths, heard the noise of a saw, and entering the hut from whence the noise proceeded, found the prisoner hard at work sawing a quantity of wood for fuel, which the officer immediately recognised as the description of wood used in the railway works, great quantities of which are constantly stolen and burnt. Under the prisoner’s bed was also found, about half a cart load of what is called oak “cord.” On the superintendent observing that the wood belonged to Messrs. Stephenson and Co., prisoner replied, “It can’t be nobody else’s.” Mr. John King, superintendent of the Works from Oxenholme to Fiddler’s Gill, spoke to the constant depredations of this kind which the contractors were suffering, and declared the wood to be their property. The prisoner was committed to trial at the ensuing sessions.” ‘County Police’ Westmorland Gazette Saturday 20 December 1845
One wonders if local kids might have been getting their own back with this unusual theft:
“A tommy shop at Crosby Garrett reported being broken into when the owner, John Bull, and his family, left it locked up. A box of raisins, three or four bottles of sweets and some oranges and apples were stolen but all items were recovered in an adjoining loft. There is no mention of any arrest or prosecution.” ‘Robbery at Crosby Garrett’ Cumberland and Westmorland Advertiser Tuesday 22nd December 1874
The decline in the mayhem by the time the Settle-Carlisle line was built may have been due to the fact that the contractors paid for extra police to be stationed along the line. This must have gone some way to alleviating the fears of local people:
“The Contractors of the Carlisle and Settle Railway have authorised the appointment of two additional Constables, under the 19th Section of the Act, 3rd and 4th Vic. Cap. 88. Ten policemen are now appointed at the exclusive cost of the Contractors. These Constables are at present located on special duty at Scotby, Armathwaite, Lazonby, Culgaith, Kirkbythore, Appleby, Crosby Garrett, Kirkby Stephen, and Mallerstang.”
‘Report of the Chief Constable’ Penrith Observer 10th January 1871
Indeed, when Settle-Carlisle works manager Henry Bushby left Crosby Garrett, the villagers presented him with a gold watch which bore the following inscription “Presented to H. Bushby, Esq., C.E. by the residents of Crosby Garrett and district, as a mark of their esteem for him during the 6 years he has been amongst them engaged in the construction of the Settle and Carlisle Line. March 28th 1876.” ‘Crosby Garrett – Presentation’, Penrith Herald Saturday 8th April 1876.
Records of marriages between railway workers and local women also indicates that not everyone lived in fear of the navvy.
With thanks to Lily Mulvey, YDNPA Historic Environment Apprentice for contributing to the research for this blog.
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