D8. Develop and implement ‘Circular Economy’ strategies that reduce litter and waste in the National Park, and increase re-cycling in line with the National Waste Strategy. A circular economy is a regenerative system in which resource input and waste, emission, and energy leakage are minimized by slowing, closing, and narrowing energy and material loops; this can be achieved through long-lasting design, maintenance, repair, reuse, remanufacturing, refurbishing, recycling, and upcycling. Rationale: Circular product life cycles are a sustainable alternative to the traditional linear life cycle of ‘make, use and dispose’. The aim is to extract maximum use from a product thereby minimising waste. For example, by designing it to last a long time, by reducing packaging, by reusing products, repairing them and maximising the capacity for recycling. This objective seeks to apply this philosophy to litter and waste generation in the National Park Lead partners: Craven District Council; Eden District Council; Richmondshire District Council; South Lakeland District Council; North Yorkshire County Council; Cumbria County Council; Lancashire County Council; Supporting partners: Yorkshire Dales National Park Authority; Further information: n/a Cost over 5 years: n/a Funding shortfall: n/a Related objectives: B8; C3; E9; F6 Ecosystem services: Climate regulation; Energy source Trade-offs: None Baseline: Average weighted constituent District rate for recycling household waste was 41.2% (2018/19) Progress: Updated progress for recycling will be published by Defra in December 2019.